The Nordic supply potential of critical metals and minerals for a Green Energy Transition

Pasi Eilu, Terje Bjerkgård, Hjalti Franzson, Håvard Gautneb, Tuulia Häkkinen, Erik Jonsson, Jakob Kløve Keiding, Jussi Pokki, Agnes Raaness, Helge Reginiussen, Bryndís G. Róbertsdóttir, Diogo Rosa, Martiya Sadeghi, Jan Sverre Sandstad, Henrik Stendal, Eyþór Rafn Þórhallsson, Tuomo Törmänen

Research output: Book/ReportBookResearch


The transformation of the current ‘high-carbon emission’ into a ‘low-carbon
emission’ society is an essential part of climate change mitigation. At
the core of this is what can be called a ‘Green Energy Transition’, an over-arching transition from non-renewables to renewables-based production,
storage, transmission and use of energy. This is a major technological
change that includes significantly increasing demand for raw materials of
all kinds (Figure A), which, combined with the general technological
development of society and industry, have already resulted in many globally
major economic players, such as the EU, to define sets of mineral-based
raw materials as critical (CRM). A raw material is deemed ‘critical’ if it
is of high importance to the economy and if its supply is associated with
a high risk of disruption. An absolute majority of the present critical raw
materials are metals which are sourced from geological occurrences
through mining.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherNordisk Ministerråd
Number of pages93
ISBN (Electronic)978-82-8277-115-3
ISBN (Print)978-82-8277-114-6
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • critical metals; green transition

Programme Area

  • Programme Area 4: Mineral Resources
  • Programme Area 3: Energy Resources


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