Source of titanium-enriched ilmenite in sand deposits, South India

S. Bernstein, R.K. McLimans, C. Knudsen, D. Frei, Venkatramaiah N. Vasudev

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedings

1 Citation (Scopus)


Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) analyses of sediment samples from coastal regions of Kerala and Tamil Nadu states and the heavy mineral deposits of Chavara, South India, show large lateral differences in the titanium content in ilmenite due to varying degrees of iron leaching. As the depositional environments for the sands with varying degrees of ilmenite alteration are comparable, the cause for the different degree of alteration is due to differences in the primary source of the ilmenite or to differences in the geochemical history of the ilmenite grains during transport from source to deposit. The CCSEM analyses of the heavy mineral fractions show that source of sediments with a high content of titanium-enriched ilmenites, mainly the heavy mineral deposit around Chavara, resides in the khondalite belt of South India (granulite facies metasediments). The less titanium-enriched ilmenites are sourced from other rocks in the area such as the charnokites. Those conclusions are based on the high MgO content in the leached ilmenites, chemical composition of the accompanying garnets (low CaO and high MgO), and the concentration of aluminum-rich minerals in the sands.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2005 Heavy Minerals Conference Proceedings, HMC 2005
EditorsMustafa Akser, John Elder
PublisherSociety for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)0873352459, 9780873352451
Publication statusPublished - 2005
EventHeavy Minerals 2005 - Ponte Vedra, Jacksonville, Florida
Duration: 16 Oct 200519 Oct 2005


ConferenceHeavy Minerals 2005
CityPonte Vedra, Jacksonville, Florida

Programme Area

  • Programme Area 4: Mineral Resources


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