Nationwide drinking water sampling campaign for exposure assessments in Denmark

Denitza Dimitrova Voutchkova, Birgitte Hansen, Vibeke Ernstsen, Søren Munch Kristiansen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Nationwide sampling campaign of treated drinking water of groundwater origin was designed and implemented in Denmark in 2013. The main purpose of the sampling was to obtain data on the spatial variation of iodine concentration and speciation in treated drinking water, which was supplied to the majority of the Danish population. This data was to be used in future exposure and epidemiologic studies. The water supply sector (83 companies, owning 144 waterworks throughout Denmark) was involved actively in the planning and implementation process, which reduced significantly the cost and duration of data collection. The dataset resulting from this collaboration covers not only iodine species (I , IO 3 , TI), but also major elements and parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, DOC, TC, TN, F , Cl , NO 3 , SO 4 2+, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, K +, Na +) and a long list of trace elements (n = 66). The water samples represent 144 waterworks abstracting about 45% of the annual Danish groundwater abstraction for drinking water purposes, which supply about 2.5 million Danes (45% of all Danish residents). This technical note presents the design, implementation, and limitations of such a sampling design in detail in order (1) to facilitate the future use of this dataset, (2) to inform future replication studies, or (3) to provide an example for other researchers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number467
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 7 Mar 2018


  • Drinking water supply
  • Exposure assessment
  • Groundwater
  • Inorganic composition
  • Iodine
  • Public health
  • Sampling design

Programme Area

  • Programme Area 2: Water Resources


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