This study presents the experimental and numerical evaluation of tertiary-CO2 flooding (CF) using reservoir and outcrop composite chalk at reservoir conditions. We were able to reproduce the results of composite core flooding experiment and our findings show the considerable effect of rock properties and wettability on the tertiary-CO2 flooding. In our experiments, we place the composite reservoir chalk core vertically in the core-holder with the total length of 45 cm and average diameter of 3.74 cm. The composite core consists of six core plugs of 7.5 cm each and include a centralized axial hole that represents the single fracture with the diameter of 0.6 cm. The whole core plugs are sampled from the reservoir formation in North-Sea-Chalk-Field (NSCF) and are saturated with NSCF stock tank oil (STO) and synthetic connate water. Once reservoir conditions are established, the sea water is injected from the bottom of the core holder and the STO is produced from the top. After no additional produced oil is observed, water flooding (WF) is stopped and CO2 is then injected from the top and the hydrocarbon streams are produced from the bottom of the fracture. The whole core flooding is operated at constant reservoir conditions of 258 bara and 110 °C, representative of NSCF reservoir conditions. Two different chalks, one from the reservoir formation (Exp-3C) and the other from outcrop (Exp-2C) are used in this study to investigate the effect of wettability during tertiary CO2 flooding. A comprehensive compositional numerical simulation with a tuned equation of state (EOS) was developed to model the experiments. Best match for the WF experiments was achieved mainly through tuning the oil-water capillary pressure and reducing the oil relative permeability data. Although the final tuned capillary pressure and relative permeability data were different, we observe similar water saturation at the end WF experiments for Exp-3C and Exp-2C.The tertiary CF lab results were reproduced by numerical model mainly by tuning the multi-component diffusion coefficients. The produced water during CF was successfully modeled by taking the hysteresis effect into account in water-oil capillary pressure data. We also observe that although the final water saturation at the end of WF is comparable, performance of tertiary CO2 flooding for each experiment is different. The reservoir chalk experiment shows higher oil recovery during the tertiary CO2 injection.
- Capillary continuity
- Outcrop chalk
- Reservoir chalk
- Reservoir engineering
- Sea-water flooding
- Tertiary-CF in composite chalk
- Programme Area 3: Energy Resources