Groundwater flow and heterogeneous discharge into a seepage lake: Combined use of physical methods and hydrochemical tracers

J. Kazmierczak, S. Müller, B. Nilsson, D. Postma, J. Czekaj, E. Sebok, S. Jessen, S. Karan, C. Stenvig Jensen, K. Edelvang, P. Engesgaard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Groundwater discharge into a seepage lake was investigated by combining flux measurements, hydrochemical tracers, geological information, and a telescopic modeling approach using first two-dimensional (2-D) regional then 2-D local flow and flow path models. Discharge measurements and hydrochemical tracers supplement each other. Discharge measurements yield flux estimates but rarely provide information about the origin and flow path of the water. Hydrochemical tracers may reveal the origin and flow path of the water but rarely provide any information about the flux. While aquifer interacting with the lake remained under seemingly steady state conditions across seasons, a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the discharge to the lake was observed. The results showed that part of the groundwater flowing from the west passes beneath the lake and discharges at the eastern shore, where groundwater springs and high discharge zones (HDZs) are observed at the lake bottom and at seepage faces adjacent to the lake. In the 2-D cross section, surface runoff from the seepage faces delivers 64% of the total groundwater inputs to the lake, and a 2 m wide offshore HDZ delivers 13%. Presence of HDZs may control nutrient fluxes to the lake.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9109-9130
Number of pages22
JournalWater Resources Research
Volume52
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2016

Keywords

  • groundwater discharge
  • hydrochemical tracers
  • seepage lake

Programme Area

  • Programme Area 2: Water Resources

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