Critical metals and minerals in the Nordic countries of Europe: diversity of mineralization and green energy potential

Erik Jonsson, Tuomo Törmänen, Jakob Kløve Keiding, Terje Bjerkgård, Pasi Eilu, Jussi Pokki, Håvard Gautneb, Helge Reginiussen, Diogo Rosa, Martiya Sadeghi, Jan Sverre Sandstad, Henrik Stendal

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter in bookResearchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Europe relies mainly on imports of critical raw materials (CRMs) for its industry, not least the vital ones for emerging green energy technologies. Among the main metal and mineral producers in Europe today, the Nordic countries (specifically, Greenland, Norway, Sweden and Finland) share a diverse geology with various deposit types formed over a long geological time span. This has led to large near-future potential with regard to CRM production. Based on current knowledge and datasets, we assess the Nordic geological potential for CRMs that are specifically relevant for green technologies, namely cobalt, graphite, hafnium, lithium, niobium, platinum-group metals, rare earth elements (REEs), silicon, tantalum, titanium and vanadium, describing the most important deposits, their setting and characteristics. Several Nordic CRM resources stand out in a European and even global context, such as the giant REE(-Nb-Ta-Hf) deposits in Greenland, while the REE-Nb- (Hf) deposits at Fen (Norway) and Norra Karr (Sweden) are very significant for Europe; Finland is the only major cobalt producer, while Norway has very significant graphite and titanium resources and production. Furthermore, Sweden, Finland and Greenland have very large vanadium resources. In addition, we conclude that the Nordic research and exploration potential for most CRMs is large.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Green Stone Age
Subtitle of host publicationExploration and exploitation of minerals for green technologies
EditorsM. Smelror, K. Hanghøj, H. Schiellerup
Place of PublicationLondon
PublisherGeological Society of London
Number of pages58
ISBN (Electronic)9781786205735
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jun 2023

Publication series

SeriesGeological Society Special Publications


  • MiMa
  • Forsyningssikkerhed
  • Grøn omstilling

Programme Area

  • Programme Area 4: Mineral Resources


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