Analysis of heavy minerals in sediments by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM): Principles and applications

Nynke Keulen, Dirk Frei, Peter Riisager, Christian Knudsen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter in bookResearchpeer-review


Computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) is an automatic particle analysis technique for which a standard model scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used. This automated mineralogy technique combines the
advantages of two SEM functions: energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) for chemical measurements and digital image analysis of back-scattered electron (BSE) micrographs. CCSEM analysis of a wide range of geological and non-geological materials has been introduced at the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) as a fast and reliable method to determine the chemistry of both individual grains and bulk samples. The chemical analysis is combined with measurements of the two-dimensional size and morphology features of every single grain by advanced image analysis. The CCSEM technique is
an alternative to the mineral liberation analysis (MLA) and QEMSCAN techniques, discussed elsewhere in this volume (Sylvester 2012; Pirrie et al. 2004). Results of the CCSEM analyses at GEUS are stored and visualized in a web-accessible Oracle
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationQuantitative mineralogy and microanalysis of sediments and sedimentary rocks
EditorsPaul Sylvester
PublisherMineralogical Association of Canada
Number of pages18
ISBN (Print)978-0-921294-52-8
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Publication series

NameMineralogical Association of Canada Short Course Series
PublisherMineralogical Association of Canada

Programme Area

  • Programme Area 4: Mineral Resources


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