Two stages of gold mineralization at Hutti mine, India

A.J. Rogers, J. Kolb, F.M. Meyer, T. Vennemann

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftArtikelForskningpeer review

39 Citationer (Scopus)

Abstrakt

The Hutti gold mine is located in a high-angle, NNW–SSE-trending shear zone system, which hosts nine discrete auriferous shear zones (reefs). On a clockwise, retrograde PT path two separate stages of deformation/metamorphism (D2/M2 and D3/M3) occurred synchronous with two distinct stages of gold mineralization, both of which were associated with different fluid types. Stage 1 mineralization developed during D2/M2, where the amphibolite host rocks were altered by a metamorphic fluid with a δ18OH2O of 7.5–10.1 ‰, rich in K, S, As, and Au at pressure and temperature conditions of around 3 kbar and 530 + 20/−30°C, respectively. The stage 1 auriferous shear zones are enveloped by a zoned alteration consisting of a distal biotite–chlorite and proximal biotite–plagioclase assemblage. Subsequently, D2/M2 was overprinted by D3/M3 deformation and metamorphism at 300–400°C and <2 kbar that formed the stage 2 mineralization. The stage 2 mineralizing fluid which originated from outside the greenstone belt (δ18Ofluid of 3.2–6.8 ‰) was rich in Si, Au, and W. This mineralization stage is distinct by the emplacement of laminated quartz veins central to the shear zone, containing locally visible gold at concentrations of up to 1 kg Au/t. The laminated quartz veins are surrounded by a millimeter-scale chlorite2–K-feldspar alteration halo, which replaced the stage 1 biotite–plagioclase assemblage. The oxygen isotopic composition of the stage 2 fluid suggests a mixture of a magmatic fluid with an oxygen isotopic composition in the range of 6 to 10 ‰ and an isotopically light formation fluid that resulted from fluid–rock interaction in the greenstone pile. The two fluid fluxes at stages 1 and 2 both contributed to the overall gold mineralization; however, it was the second fluid pulse, which gave the Hutti mine its status as the largest gold mine in India. The metamorphic evolution was thereby important for the first stage, whereas the second stage was controlled by tectonism and intrusion of the high-heat production Yellagatti granite that re-established the fluid plumbing and mineralizing system.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
Sider (fra-til)99-114
Antal sider16
TidsskriftMineralium Deposita
Vol/bind48
Udgave nummer1
DOI
StatusUdgivet - jan. 2013

Programområde

  • Programområde 4: Mineralske råstoffer

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