Supply chains of mineral raw materials of importance to the Danish economy. Overview of current and potential supply risks

Publikation: Bog/rapportRapport (offentligt tilgængelig)


Due to increasing global population and growing economies, the demand for mineral resources is rapidly escalating, particularly with respect to a range of specialty raw materials associated with ‘the green transition’. High growth rates and inadequate infrastructure for processing these raw materials, compounded by geopolitical conflicts, challenge the supply security of mineral resources and, consequently, national economies worldwide. In Denmark, where consumption is predominantly directed towards processed mineral raw materials and finished products thereof, the challenges for supply chains are less transparent but equally serious.

This report presents a qualitative analysis of eight raw material supply chains (bauxite/alumina/aluminium, boron, copper, iron/steel, nickel, tungsten, vanadium, and zinc), and highlights some of the conditions in the supply chains that may impact the supply leading up to 2030. The raw materials are selected because they are considered important for the Danish industry (Clausen et al. 2023).

The supply challenges for the analysed raw materials vary but are generally characterized by their complexity, with many intricate links in the supply chains, inadequate supply chain infrastructure, limited geographic diversity, and tendencies towards monopolization of entire or vital parts of the supply chains. None of the raw materials can be characterized as ‘supply secure’.

The geological reserves for the eight raw materials are not an immediate limiting factor. However, supply chains will be challenged to meet the expected demand leading up to 2030 and 2040, due to long lead times from exploration to new active mines and the development and establishment of business models for the many necessary links in processing industries. Securing a stable raw material supply, including for ‘the green transition’, requires rapid and diversified capacity building in all links of the supply chains, from mineral exploration and mining to raw material processing and manufactures. Outside China, only inadequate developments of these key infrastructures are in progress.
Antal sider164
ISBN (Elektronisk)978-87-7871-607-1
StatusUdgivet - 15 maj 2024


NavnMiMa rapport


  • MiMa
  • Forsyningssikkerhed
  • Grøn omstilling
  • Cirkulær økonomi


  • Programområde 4: Mineralske råstoffer


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