Status and recommendations for RD&D on energy storage technologies in a Danish context

Allan Schrøder Pedersen (Redaktør), Brian Elmegaard, Claus Hviid Christensen, Claus Kjøller, Frank Elefsen, John Bøgild Hansen, Jørgen Hvid, Per Alex Sørensen, Søren Knudsen Kær, Thomas Vangkilde-Pedersen, Thorkild Feldthusen Jensen

Publikation: Bog/rapportRapport (offentligt tilgængelig)


The present report has been prepared by a project group composed of representatives from Danish industry and Danish research community. It makes recommendations about future Danish efforts within public support for RD&D on energy storage technologies in a Danish perspective.

The report defines energy storage as:
• Man-made (artificial) storage of energy in physical or chemical form for utilisation at a later time.

The report briefly describes analyses of the future need for energy storage in a Danish perspective and assesses which sectors of the energy system, where energy storage can be expected to play a role and what kind of services it could provide to give flexibility in the sustainable energy system.

The work has been based on an assessment of the technical needs for energy storage in the future Danish energy system towards 2030 and further on. In particular, the report does not present new information or data on future economic performance of storage technologies. Within the given timeframes and resources for the work, it has also not been possible to provide an exhaustive catalogue or comprehensive descriptions of energy storage technologies.

A number of assumptions are underlying the work in the report. The most important ones are the central Danish political goals that:
• 50% of electricity supply should come from wind power in 2020
• All domestic electricity and heat demand should be supplied by non-fossil sources in 2035
• By 2050 Denmark should be completely independent of fossil energy

In addition, we have assumed that biomass and interconnecting transmission lines will not be sufficient to provide required flexibility in the electricity system and at the same time provide suitable and sufficient energy for transport.

The recommendations in the report take rise in a number of criteria, the most important being:
• the technologies' relevance in the future Danish energy system
• Danish strongholds and competences (research and industry) within storage technologies
• assessment of market potentials – national as well as international

Technologies not specifically described in the report are estimated to not be of sufficient relevance and potential to justify a concerted action in the Danish RD&D support programmes. However, the report also underlines that the recommendations given in the report should not be adopted rigidly, but rather as overall guidelines, which naturally should be deviated from should the occasion arise.

The following main topics are recommended for support in the Danish RD&D programmes during the coming decade and the report makes detailed, specific technical recommendations for each technology:

Chemical Energy Storage
The technologies of storing energy in the form of chemical compounds (carbon- or non-carbon-containing chemical fuels) hold a considerable potential to meet many challenges associated with storing energy in the future energy system. In addition, Denmark has strong RD&D groupings covering a wide spectrum of electricity to fuel conversion technologies.

Batteries have attractive storage properties in terms of high power rates and infinitesimal reaction time in response to altering voltage over the electrodes. Batteries thus have important and highly demanded services to offer in the future Danish energy system.

Thermal energy storage
Linking different energy sectors will become an appreciated asset of the future energy system and thermal energy storage is likely to play a central role on this scene, linking electricity to heating and cooling. Denmark has an extensive district heating system, where heat storage fits excellently, and in addition, heat storage is crucial in efforts to improve energy efficiency.

Furthermore, the report calls for attention to certain types of mechanical energy storage technologies and finally it suggests encouraging system analyses including possibilities for energy storage.

A timeline for energy storage to become a commercial component in the Danish energy system is given tentatively.
Rekvirerende organisationEnergistyrelsen
Antal sider136
StatusUdgivet - feb. 2014


  • Energilagring
  • Varmelagring


  • Programområde 3: Energiressourcer


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