Reinvestigation of the classic late-glacial Bølling Sø sequence, Denmark: chronology, macrofossils, Cladocera and chydorid ephippia

Ole Bennike, Kaarina Sarmaja-Korjonen, Anna Seppanen

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Abstrakt

The late-glacial Bølling period was first identified by Johs. Iversen on the basis of pollen results from Lake Bølling Sø in Denmark. Because there were no radiocarbon dates from the sequence the Bølling Chronozone (12 000-13 000 14C yr BP) was later established on the basis of dates from other sites. A new project is reinvestigating the sediments from the Bølling Sø sequence with AMS radiocarbon dating and multiproxy analyses. Here we present results of AMS radiocarbon dating, macrofossil analyses, cladoceran analyses (Cladocera concentrations and chydorid ephippia) and Pediastrum analyses (concentrations). The AMS dates on land plant remains show that the lower part of the sequence is around 12 500 14C yr BP, and thus clearly pre-dates the Allerød chronozone. However, construction of a chronology for the sequence was problematic, partly because of reworking of macroscopic plant remains. The climate ameliorated after glacial conditions to such an extent that growth of plants could begin at ca. 12 500 14C yr BP, but the results of multiproxy analyses show little evidence for a further warming period during the pre-Allerød part of the sequence. Lake productivity was low, and tree birch rare or maybe absent. This may reflect widespread occurrence of dead ice, unstable soils, heavy in-wash of minerogenic matter to the lake, resulting in turbid water and rapid sedimentation. The early pioneer vegetation was characterised by Salix polaris and Dryas octopetala, and by herbs. The Allerød Chronozone, and especially its initial part, appears to have been relatively warm but reduced cladoceran concentrations and increased proportion of chydorid ephippia suggest that climate cooled in the middle Allerød and that the late Allerød was colder than the early part. The early Younger Dryas was probably colder than the late Younger Dryas. Clear warming is apparent at the beginning of the Holocene, where the first macrofossil evidence of trees (Betula pubescens, Populus tremula) is found.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Sider (fra-til)465-478
Antal sider14
TidsskriftJournal of Quaternary Science
Vol/bind19
Udgave nummer5
DOI
StatusUdgivet - jul. 2004

Programområde

  • Programområde 5: Natur og klima

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