The origin, depositional environment and maturity of petroleum source rocks were determined via conventional whole rock and biomarker analysis of samples from wells in the Banat Depression, where the most important Serbian oil and gas fields are located. The organic matter (OM) in organic-rich upper Tertiary siltstones and marls consists predominantly of Type II kerogen. Numerous biomarker parameters indicated mixed algal-terrestrial OM, related to a brackish or freshwater environment, whose salinity decreased from Middle to Upper Miocene. The OM was deposited under variable redox conditions, reducing to sub-oxic. The wells in the Banat Depression experienced variable high rates of rapid heating, providing an opportunity for examining the applicability of different thermal indicators in a hyperthermal basin. Rock-Eval and numerous biomarker parameters indicate that the main stage of oil generation begins at ca.130°C and vitrinite reflectance (Rc) ca. 0.63% and reaches a maximum at ca.145-150°C and Rc ca. 0.72-0.75%, while the late stage of oil generation starts at ca.155°C and ca. Rc 0.78%, which corresponds, depending on geothermal gradient, to relative depths of 2100-2300m, 2600-2900m and 3050-3100m, respectively. The naphthalene and phenanthrene maturity parameters proved to be less applicable than the biomarker ratios, particularly in the early to moderate maturation range. The newly proposed parameter C(14a)-homo-26-nor-17α(H)-hopane/C 30hopane (C 30HH/C 30H) proved applicable to a wide range of maturity.
- Programområde 3: Energiressourcer