We have developed a method for iron isotope analysis by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) using a 58Fe-54Fe double spike. A 20 min analysis produces mass-bias-corrected iron isotope data with an external reproducibility of ±0.05‰ (2 SD) on δ56 Fe, which represents a decrease in analysis time compared to sample-standard bracketing techniques. The estimation of external reproducibility is based on replicate analysis of the ETH hematite in-house standard. The double spike method has two advantages. First, matrix effects during MC-ICP-MS analysis are decreased with tests showing that accurate iron isotope data can, in some cases, be obtained even when matrix levels exceed iron concentration (Na/Fe, Mg/Fe, and Ca/ Fe up to 5, 2, and 0.1, respectively). Because chemical separation reduces matrix/Fe to levels more than three orders of magnitude lower than this, measured Fe isotope compositions are unlikely to be compromised by matrix effects. Second, it is possible to spike samples before chemical purification, which enables any isotopic fractionation effect because of incomplete recovery of iron from a sample to be accounted for. This may be important where obtaining quantitative iron yields from samples is difficult, such as the extraction of dissolved iron from water samples. Fe isotope data on a set of standard reference materials (igneous rocks, ferromanganese nodules, sedimentary rocks, and ores) are presented, which are in agreement with previously published data considering analytical uncertainties. Mantle-derived standard rock samples that are the source of iron for surficial, (bio)geochemical cycling yield a mean δ56Fe of 0.041 ± 0.11‰ (n = 8; 2 SD) with reference to IRMM-14. Hydrothermal and metamorphic calcium carbonate rocks with a relatively low iron content (100-4000 ppm) have δ56Fe = -1.25 to -0.07‰. Structural Fe(II) in hydrothermal calcites has δ56Fe = -1.25 to -0.27‰. The light iron in this range of carbonate minerals may reflect the iron isotope composition of the hydrothermal fluids from which the carbonate precipitated, or the presence of Fe(III) and/or organic material in the hydrothermal fluids during calcite precipitation.
- Programområde 5: Natur og klima