Impact of pressure on tertiary-CO2 flooding in a fractured chalk reservoir

M. Ghasemi, W. Astutik, S.A. Alavian, C.H. Whitson, L. Sigalas, D. Olsen, V.S. Suicmez

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftArtikelForskningpeer review

10 Citationer (Scopus)


The purpose of this study is to present the numerical and experimental evaluation of tertiary-CO 2 flooding (CF) at high operating pressure and temperature conditions. In this study, water flooding is followed by CO 2 injection into an outcrop chalk core with a centralized fracture. Our validated numerical models reproduce the results of core flooding experiments. The experiments used an outcrop core which is vertically placed in the core-holder with the total length of 28 cm and the diameter of 12.3 cm. The axial “fracture” is represented by a centralized hole with the diameter of 2.2 cm. We utilize the Wood's Metal technique to initially saturate the chalk core with the North-Sea-Chalk-Field (NSCF) live oil. The core sample is aged to restore the original chalk wettability at the operating conditions. Then, the water flooding (WF) is performed by injecting brine from the bottom of the fracture and producing the oil from the top. After no additional produced oil is observed, the WF is stopped. A “shut-in” period follows, which allows preparing the rig for tertiary-CO 2 flooding. CO 2 is then injected from the top and the hydrocarbon streams are produced from the bottom of the fracture. The whole core flooding is operated at constant reservoir conditions of 300 bara and 110 °C, which is higher than the initial NSCF reservoir pressure (258 bara and 110 °C). This allows us to investigate the efficiency of the tertiary-CF at a higher operating pressure condition. We employ a compositional reservoir simulation with a developed equation of state (EOS) to model the experiment. An automated history matching procedure is developed to match the experimental results. The modeling workflow is capable of taking into account the significant vaporization effect observed during CF when the rich-CO 2 enters the three-phase separator. We accurately model the WF experiment through tuning the oil-water capillary pressure and relative permeability data. The numerical model is capable of reproducing the CF lab results by employing the best match multi-component diffusion coefficients. Moreover, we successfully model the excessive water production during CO 2 injection by taking into account the hysteresis effect in water-oil capillary pressure and relative permeability. Comparing these results with our previous work at lower reservoir pressure shows the positive effect of pressure on increasing the efficiency of the tertiary-CF in recovering more oil from a matrix-fracture system. Also, the tuned capillary pressure and relative permeability during WF indicate an active imbibition drive and a strongly water-wet system. Our findings are an important step towards modeling the tertiary-CO 2 flooding in an actual fracture-chalk system.

Sider (fra-til)406-417
Antal sider12
TidsskriftJournal of Petroleum Science and Engineering
StatusUdgivet - aug. 2018


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