The Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden have been closely connected for many centuries, not least from a geological point of view. Scientific cooperation as well as contentions have been common. The earliest known records of "geological" treatises are from the l6th century, but especially in the 18th century, when the natural sciences flourished all over Europe, Nordic scholars were in the forefront in geochemistry, mineralogy, and paleontology. This was also the century when "geology" started to be taught at the universities, and science academies were founded in Norden, adding greatly to "geological" studies. In the 19th century, like in so many other countries, national geological survey organizations and geological societies were founded. In Norden, geological research has long traditions within mineralogy and ore geology, paleontology and stratigraphy, tectonics and structural geology. During the last century, focus has turned also to Quaternary and glacial geology, igneous and metamorphic petrology, geochemistry, micropaleontology, petroleum geology, sedimentology, marine geology, geophysics, geochronology, and research related to geothermal energy and deposition of radioactive waste products. In many of these research areas, Nordic geoscientists have contributed greatly over the years to the development of the science of geology.
- Programområde 1: Data