The extraction of spectral information in the inversion process of time-domain (TD) induced polarization (IP) data is changing the use of the TDIP method. Data interpretation is evolving from a qualitative description of the subsurface, able only to discriminate the presence of contrasts in chargeability parameters, towards a quantitative analysis of the investigated media, which allows for detailed soil- and rock-type characterization. Two major limitations restrict the extraction of the spectral information of TDIP data in the field: (i) the difficulty of acquiring reliable early-time measurements in the millisecond range and (ii) the self-potential background drift in the measured potentials distorting the shape of the late-time IP responses, in the second range. Recent developments in TDIP acquisition equipment have given access to full-waveform recordings of measured potentials and transmitted current, opening for a breakthrough in data processing. For measuring at early times, we developed a new method for removing the significant noise from power lines contained in the data through a model-based approach, localizing the fundamental frequency of the power-line signal in the full-waveform IP recordings. By this, we cancel both the fundamental signal and its harmonics. Furthermore, an efficient processing scheme for identifying and removing spikes in TDIP data was developed. The noise cancellation and the de-spiking allow the use of earlier and narrower gates, down to a few milliseconds after the current turn-off. In addition, tapered windows are used in the final gating of IP data, allowing the use of wider and overlapping gates for higher noise suppression with minimal distortion of the signal. For measuring at late times, we have developed an algorithm for removal of the self-potential drift. Usually constant or linear drift-removal algorithms are used, but these algorithms often fail in removing the background potentials present when the electrodes used for potential readings are previously used for current injection, also for simple contact resistance measurements. We developed a drift-removal scheme that models the polarization effect and efficiently allows for preserving the shape of the IP responses at late times. Uncertainty estimates are essential in the inversion of IP data. Therefore, in the final step of the data processing, we estimate the data standard deviation based on the data variability within the IP gates and the misfit of the background drift removal Overall, the removal of harmonic noise, spikes, self-potential drift, tapered windowing and the uncertainty estimation allows for doubling the usable range of TDIP data to almost four decades in time (corresponding to four decades in frequency), which will significantly advance the applicability of the IP method.
- Programområde 2: Vandressourcer