The response to CO2 exposure of a variety of carbonate cemented rocks has been investigated using pressurised batch experiments conducted under simulated reservoir conditions, 70°C and 20MPa, and with a durations of up to14months. Calcite, dolomite, ankerite and siderite cement were present in the unreacted reservoir rocks and caprocks. Core plugs of the reservoir rocks were used in order to investigate the alterations in situ. Crushing of the caprock samples was necessary to maximise reactions within the relatively short duration of the laboratory experiments. Synthetic brines were constructed for each batch experiment to match the specific formation water composition known from the reservoir and caprock formations in each well. Chemical matched synthetic brines proved crucial in order to avoid reactions due to non-equilibra of the fluids with the rock samples, for example observations of the dissolution of anhydrite, which were not associated with the CO2 injection, but rather caused by mismatched brines. Carbonate dissolution as a response to CO2 injection was confirmed in all batch experiments by both petrographical observations and geochemical changes in the brines. Increased Ca and Mg concentrations after 1month reaction with CO2 and crushed caprocks are ascribed to calcite and dolomite dissolution, respectively, though not verified petrographically. Ankerite and possible siderite dissolution in the sandstone plugs are observed petrographically after 7months reaction with CO2; and are accompanied by increased Fe and Mn contents in the reacted fluids. Clear evidence for calcite dissolution in sandstone plugs is observed petrographically after 14months of reaction with CO2, and is associated with increased amounts of Ca (and Mg) in the reacted fluid. Dolomite in sandstones shows only minor dissolution features, which are not clearly supported by increased Mg content in the reacted fluid.Silicate dissolution cannot be demonstrated, either by chemical changes in the fluids, as Si and Al concentrations remain below the analytical detection limits, nor by petrographical changes, as partly dissolved feldspar grains and authigenic analcime are present in the sediments prior to the experiments. It is noteworthy, that authigenic K-feldspar and authigenic albite in sandstones show no signs of dissolution and consequently seem to be stable under the experimental conditions.
- Programområde 3: Energiressourcer