Autonomous water sampling for long-term monitoring of trace metals in remote environments

Hyojin Kim, James K.B. Bishop, Todd J. Wood, Inez Y. Fung

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftArtikelForskningpeer review

14 Citationer (Scopus)


A remotely controlled autonomous method for long-term high-frequency sampling of environmental waters in remote locations is described. The method which preserves sample integrity of dissolved trace metals and major ions for month-long periods employs a gravitational filtration system (GFS) that separates dissolved and particulate phases as samples are collected. The key elements of GFS are (1) a modified "air-outlet" filter holder to maximize filtration rate and thus minimize filtration artifacts; and (2) the direct delivery of filtrate to dedicated bottle sets for specific analytes. Depth and screen filter types were evaluated with depth filters showing best performance. GFS performance is validated using ground, stream, and estuary waters. Over 30 days of storage, samples with GFS treatment had average recoveries of 95 ± 19% and 105 ± 7% of Fe and Mn, respectively; without GFS treatment, average recoveries were only 16% and 18%. Dissolved major cations K, Mg, and Na were stable independent of collection methodology, whereas Ca in some groundwater samples decreased up to 42% without GFS due to CaCO3 precipitation. In-field performance of GFS equipped autosamplers is demonstrated using ground and streamwater samples collected at the Angelo Coast Range Reserve, California from October 3 to November 4 2011.

Sider (fra-til)11220-11226
Antal sider7
TidsskriftEnvironmental Science and Technology
Udgave nummer20
StatusUdgivet - 16 okt. 2012
Udgivet eksterntJa


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